current conflicts in central america

As the drug trade has moved north, the opportunities for profit and power it provides have been rapidly exploited by many of the same groups that fought the civil wars of the 1980s. US News is a recognized leader in college, grad school, hospital, mutual fund, and car rankings. The Central American countries of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Nicaragua face a variety of interrelated challenges. • Gangs MS 13 and Barrio 18 are the dominant gangs in El Salvador. On , 2006 the U.S.-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) went into effect between the United States and El… www.telesurtv.net America's Role in El Salvador's Deterioration • Natural Disasters In 2001, El Salvador received TPS status after the country suffered three earthquakes. The majority of the members are MS 13 or Barrio 18 and most active in Honduras, especially in the nation’s capital, Tegucigalpa, as well as Guatemala and El Salvador. A man drives his motorcycle at a bridge damaged after the passage of Storm Eta, in Pimienta, Honduras November 6, 2020. Organised crime forces people to flee. Two more decades on, the conditions that gave rise to Central America’s conflicts persist, while the promises of postwar peace and democracy have fallen flat. The murder rate in El Salvador, once the world’s highest, is falling fast. About one-third are naturalized U.S. citizens, and they tend to participate in the labor force at a higher rate than foreign- and U.S.-born adults. Thousands of migrants from Central America travel through Mexico on their way to the United States, ... as a top conflict to watch in 2020. Most powerful Atlantic storm of 2020 makes landfall. As the coronavirus spreads, and the U.S. presidential election looms, the Trump administration and Mexican government continue to deport migrants from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. Update: Read 10 Conflicts to Watch in 2019. Gangs and Plunging Violence in El Salvador, Why Crisis Group Calls for Inclusive Dialogue in Ethiopia, Fight and Flight: Tackling the Roots of Honduras’ Emergency, The Keys to Restarting Nicaragua’s Stalled Talks, A Road to Dialogue After Nicaragua’s Crushed Uprising, Saving Guatemala’s Fight Against Crime and Impunity, Miracle or mirage? When they entered the country, they were murdered. The Center for Preventive Action's (CPA) Global Conflict Tracker is an interactive guide to ongoing conflicts around the world of concern to the United States. In Central America's new conflicts, profit has displaced politics as the governing ideology. In fact, Berta Zúñiga, Cáceres’ daughter, survived a gun attack after assuming her … It should stay this course, honouring its other commitments to the opposition in national dialogue. Program Director, Latin America and Caribbean, The Covid-19 Pandemic and Deadly Conflict, The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Visual Explainer, Turkey’s PKK Conflict: A Visual Explainer, Easing Cameroon’s Ethno-political Tensions, On and Offline, A Refuge from Violence in a Forgotten Corner of Colombia, The SDF Seeks a Path Toward Durable Stability in North East Syria, Virus-proof Violence: Crime and COVID-19 in Mexico and the Northern Triangle, All the President’s Trolls: Real and Fake Twitter Fights in El Salvador, Miracle or Mirage? Dominican Republic: Central Bank keeps rates steady in November. Moreover, it is clear that the current phase of this violence is highly concentrated in a small number of high-profile conflicts: the Boko Haram insurgency in Central Africa, the Second Libyan Civil War to the north of the Sahara, and the al Shabaab insurgency in the continent’s eastern horn. According to Jonathan Wiener, a former State Department official who worked on Central America, "it takes ten years for a society to [build] a functioning rule of law and an administration of justice program. current edition: US edition News ... A silent emergency is spreading across Central America and ... more killings and disappearances than some of the world’s most fearsome armed conflicts. While indicators suggest that criminal insurgency is spreading in Latin America, most recently to Central America, it is unclear whether the current U.S. response will be sufficient to prevent the failure of states in the region. Routes formerly used to transport cargo during the civil war are now used to transport drugs across borders. Public resentment is high in Nicaragua after street protests in April were crushed in a brutal government crackdown. • Warfare: The Cold War-era Sandinista-Contra conflict defined Nicaragua—Guerilla groups found it easy to recruit poor and middle-class locals. Conflicts Over Indigenous Land Grow More Violent in Central America Faced with government inaction, some activists try to reclaim ancestral lands on their own. Archaeology. • Natural Disasters: Hurricane Mitch wreaked havoc on Nicaragua, along with several other natural disasters, including the 1972 Managua earthquake, the floods of 1982, Hurricane Joan-Miriam in 1988, the eruption of Cerro Negro volcano in 1992 and Hurricane Cesar-Douglas in 1996. Catholic leaders and activists opposed authoritarian regimes, influenced democratic "transitions," and, within substantially altered ecclesial institutions, have remained a significant presence in more open societies today. Hugely popular, the commission has helped reduce the country’s terrible murder rate. Decades of U.S. Compared to the 1980s, the region is relatively free from armed conflict, politically stable, and a strong economic partner, importing over $27 billion in … • Weak/Corrupt Government: Guatemala’s leading anti-drug investigator and his aides were arrested in the U.S. on charges of drug trafficking in 2005. This essay places the Reagan administration’s Central America policies and justifications in historical perspective, provides historical background on El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, and describes the tragic wars of the 1980s. Religion has been a remarkably dynamic force in Latin America since the 1960s, paralleling the shift from dictatorship to elected government. As of 2017, more than 242,000 Guatemalans were still refugees or internally displaced because of the civil war and ongoing drug cartel and gang violence. Drug robbers known as tumbadores have taken advantage of the flow of drugs, often stealing shipments, according to InSight Crimes. Items in bold are wars most often considered to be major conflicts by historians and the general public. With over 2000 personnel deployed on approximately 20 different missions, the CAF is taking unprecedented measures to protect the health and well-being of … • Weak/Corrupt Government: Between 1932-1949, General Tiburcio Carias Andino led the nation’s right-wing National party of Honduras under a 17-year dictatorship. • Drug Trade The nation is relatively small, but it’s a key location for drug receiving and storage. President Nayib Bukele attributes the good news to his harsh anti-gang crackdown, but other factors are likely also salient. ... Criollos were a minority group who descended from both the ancient families of the Spaniards that conquered Central America and the Indians who had been conquered by the Spaniards. • Immigration status in the U.S.: 262,500 El Salvadorans will lose their TPS status on Sept. 9, 2019. 1838 - Costa Rica becomes a fully independent country after the disintegration of the United Provinces of Central America. Iran 1 day ago. — White House Statement on the Conference on Prosperity and Security in Central America, June 2017. Central America Economic News. Additionally, the nation has one of the most unequal wealth distributions globally. Cuba and the Castr Conflict Across Latin America. There are seven countries in Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama.The population of Central America is approximately 41,739,000. In 2000, more than 1,000 street children were murdered by death squads that had police backing, according to the Honduran Committee for the Defence of Human Rights. Through the inter-agency U.S. Strategy for Central America, USAID is addressing the security, governance, and economic drivers of irregular migration to the United States from Central America. The Northern Triangle of Central America (“NTCA”), composed of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, is considered one of the most dangerous places on earth, which has caused unprecedented levels of migration. These natural disasters caused millions to become homeless, thousands of deaths and billions of dollars worth of damages. Religion and Political Conflict in Latin America. In this new era of limit testing, Crisis Group’s President Robert Malley lists the Ten Conflicts to Watch in 2019. While much attention has been paid to recent Central American arrivals at the U.S.-Mexico border, nearly half of the approximately 3.5 million Central Americans resident in the United States in 2017 arrived before 2000. Criminal gangs exert heavy territorial control in urban areas … Many historians and policy experts are quick to point out that much of the troubles in Central America were created or at least helped by the US’s interference in those countries going back decades. Their growth can be attributed to the nation’s poverty, its pre-existing culture of violence, access to weapons left from the civil war and the arrival of gang members from the U.S., according to InSight Crimes. 1811 1811 Independence Movement 1823 — 1838 Federal Republic of Central America Independence and annexation by the … Often, they pay a high price… With Nicaragua to the south, this geographic area accounts for many of the asylum seekers arriving at the U.S.-Mexico border. # 1 Organised crime forces people to flee Criminal gangs exert heavy territorial control in urban areas in Central America, where poverty is rampant. President Nayib Bukele attributes the good news to his harsh anti-gang crackdown, but other factors are likely also salient. The government now divides the gangs into separate prisons, but the large concentration of the same gang in one prison has helped with recruitment and retention. Two more decades on, the conditions that gave rise to Central America’s conflicts persist, while the promises of postwar peace and democracy have fallen flat. At the same time, however, similar border disputes have been exacerbated in the cases of Guyana, Venezuela, and Colombia and in Central America. The U.S. viewed Arbenz as a communist threat and helped Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas, laying the foundation for the nation’s civil war. The incident as well as other recent ... Border conflicts ... region’s leaders need to focus on those things that unite them if they are going to build a peaceful and prosperous Central America. Type: Analysis and Commentary. • Immigration status in the U.S.: 86,000 will lose their TPS status Jan. 5, 2020. The U.N.-sponsored Historical Clarification Commission reported that 83 percent of those individuals were indigenous Maya, and the majority of human rights violations were carried out by government forces. Americas. The nation’s large forrest reservation also makes it target for timber trafficking. Next year, President Jimmy Morales vows he will end the mandate of the UN-backed Commission against Impunity in Guatemala. Central American migrants rest during the annual Migrant Stations of the Cross caravan or “Via crucis,” organized by the “Pueblo Sin Fronteras” activist group, inside a sports center during the group’s few-days stop in Matias Romero, Oaxaca state, Mexico, Monday, April 2, 2018. To prevent further unrest, President Ortega should implement agreed electoral reforms while international actors maintain diplomatic pressure to create conditions for dialogue. Central America is a region found between the southern tip of North America and the northern part of South America. In many cases, this results not so much from industry as from the massive concentration in 1-2 urban areas in each country. The borders of these four countries foster political instability plagued by violence, weak or corrupt governments and poverty, all exacerbated by natural disasters, guerilla warfare, street gangs and the drug trade, according to the Council on Foreign Relations. With outside help, Tegucigalpa should revisit its heavy-handed security policies and enact judicial and electoral reforms to avert future upheaval. Through the inter-agency U.S. Strategy for Central America, USAID is addressing the security, governance, and economic drivers of irregular migration to the United States from Central America. Under Álvarez’s direction, many Hondurans disappeared and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights found the Honduran government guilty of those disappearances. Central America is at a pivotal point in its history. 1898 — 1934 Banana Wars. To fight organised crime more effectively, governments should combine policing with programs to aid the vulnerable and create attractive alternatives to illegal economic activity. Environmental changes, persistent inequality, and increasing violence force millions of people throughout the region to live in a constant state of uncertainty. This story originally appeared in the Las Vegas Weekly. • Poverty Honduras is the second poorest country in Central America. While indicators suggest that criminal insurgency is spreading in Latin America, most recently to Central America, it is unclear whether the current U.S. response will be sufficient to prevent the failure of states in the region. At its end-November meeting, the Central Bank kept the policy rate at 3.00% for the third month running, following sizable easing earlier in the year. Cuba and the Castr The government should explore policing and socio-economic reforms to calm the country’s streets. Riots killed dozens and injured hundreds. Displaced by the violence, people have been fleeing the region in record numbers, and the United States is their primary destination. TripSavvy / Kaley McKean Here Are 17 Facts about Central America . El Salvador taps new DC lobbyist in pivot to Biden. There are an estimated 70,000 gang members in the Northern Triangle according to the U.N. and U.S. Southern Command. This pollution can be both airborne, and arguably more important, also originates in the underdevelopment of sanitation infrastructure. • Poverty: Nicaragua suffers from underemployment and is the poorest country in Central America and the second poorest in the Western Hemisphere after Haiti, according to the CIA. • Drug Trade: Drug trafficking groups called transportistas take advantage of Guatemala’s poverty-stricken people and corrupt government to operate from the nation. Cuba and the Castros. Nicaragua tops the list, having had militarized disputes with four states. September 19, 1912 Battle of Masaya. We can divide the environmental challenges into those that are already apparent and those that will become more so through the 21st C. (World Bank, 2016) Among the former, the most obvious one is the pollution that mars many cities in Latin America. Intervention in Central America Echo in Present Border Crisis 07/22/2014 03:15 pm ET Updated Sep 21, 2014 WASHINGTON, DC - JULY 07: Young children join immigration reform protesters while marching in front of the White House July 7, 2014 in Washington, DC. The century also witnessed the rise, then the “boom,” of Protestant—specifically Pentecostal—religion. • Warfare: Lasting from 1960 to 1996, almost 200,000 people disappeared or were killed during Guatemala’s 36-year civil war. Gangs and the collapse of violence in El Salvador (Online Event, 21st July 2020), Gangs and Plunging Violence in El Salvador, Tough Law Enforcement and Violent Crime in El Salvador: A Timeline, Deportation and Disease: Central America’s COVID-19 Dilemmas. Central America is at a pivotal point in its history. In 2007, three Salvadoran Central American Parliament members went to Guatemala for a meeting with other regional delegates. In America today, a slew of social issues including police brutality, racial equality, gender inequality, classist and LGBTQ rights challenge millions of people. Interventionist U.S. foreign policies wrapped in the rhetoric of stemming migration, waging war on drugs, and stoking development continue to enable militarization, human rights abuses, and displacement. Central American states should press their northern neighbours for more stringent health measures. October 3, … Both quote Mittal as saying: “The supply chain of beef from Nicaragua is anything but clean.” Brazilians mourn death of Argentinian archrival Maradona. Thousands of migrants from Central America travel through Mexico on their way to the United States, on October 27, 2018. Iran to increase nuclear production, prohibit inspectors from US if sanctions not lifted: reports. In his introduction to this month’s edition of CrisisWatch, our President Robert Malley reflects on our field analysts’ work, Crisis Group’s mandate, and why we call for inclusive dialogue in Ethiopia. During the 1980s, the executive office remained politically weak with Chief General Gustavo Álvarez wielding considerable power. 25 Aug 2020 . USIP's senior program officer for Latin America, Virginia Bouvier, explores what lessons Esquipulas II might offer for peace in Colombia. Business. South America. The nation has a long history of authoritarian governments, with its most modern roots in the 1950s when the CIA supported a coup d’état against the democratically elected president Jacobo Arbenz. • Warfare The El Salvadoran civil war started in 1980 between the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front, a coalition of leftist guerrilla groups, and the government, killing 75,000 during the 12-year war. The role of religion shifted dramatically in Central American politics during the 20th century, as the Catholic Church moved from a position as conservator of the status quo to a powerful force for reform and human rights. It’s not all about Donald Trump. • Violence: As of 2017, there were 190,000 refugees and internally displaced Hondurans because of violence, extortion, threats or forced recruitment by urban gangs, according to CIA. Latin America, like much of the developing world, will have to face serious challenges in the current century. Central America. https://military.wikia.org/wiki/List_of_conflicts_in_South_America Even more: women activists in Mexico and Central America are in higher danger of being attacked and murdered – particularly activists involved in indigenous and environmental conflicts. Published on Oct 13, 2020. Deportation and Disease: Central America’s COVID-19 Dilemmas As the coronavirus spreads, and the U.S. presidential election looms, the Trump administration and Mexican government continue to deport migrants from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. Guatemalan authorities arrested four police officers, according to InSight Crime, a foundation that studies organized crime in Latin and Caribbean nations. Catholic leaders and activists opposed authoritarian regimes, influenced democratic "transitions," and, within substantially altered ecclesial institutions, have remained a significant presence in more open societies today. The nation has one of the highest rates of femicide globally, with one woman killed every 13.8 hours. On June 11, Attorney General Jeff Sessions wrote a 31-page decision excluding domestic and gang violence from asylum claims. In particular, the legacy of serious armed conflicts in El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua in the late 20th century has contributed to the development of organized crime, and gang violence across the region and consistently some of the highest homicide rates in the world. In South America's case, however, initiating conflict is a major logistical ordeal. Their bodies were found burnt on the side of the road. This statistic shows the number of conflicts in America (North America, Central America and South America) from 2005 to 2019, by conflict intensity. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. The country is located on one of the most seismically active regions and is exposed to a variety of other natural disasters, including floods, volcanic eruptions, tropical storms and landslides. The murder rate in El Salvador, once the world’s highest, is falling fast. This essay places the Reagan administration’s Central America policies and justifications in historical perspective, provides historical background on El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, and describes the tragic wars of the 1980s. As the coronavirus rages in Mexico and the northerly Central American countries, criminal outfits have adapted, often enlarging their turf. The journey through cartel-controlled states in Mexico is safer than what they face in Central America’s Northern Triangle, comprised of Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador. Many of these problems have been ongoing for decades but are only receiving the awareness they deserve in the 2010s. That’s a statement more easily written than believed, given the U.S. … International actors should promise consequences if the government drags its feet. The prisons were almost 350 percent over capacity as of 2016, according to the International Centre for Prison Studies. Religion and Political Conflict in Latin America. 1 Costa Rica 2 Guatemala 3 Nicaragua 4 El Salvador 5 Honduras 6 Panama 7 Belize 8 See also 1921 War of Coto (against Panama) 1948 Costa Rican Civil War 1524 — 1697 Spanish conquest of Guatemala 1530 Alvarado enslaves the Mayan kingdoms of Cakchiquel, Mam, and Ixil. In m… Each of this second set of countries has been involved in at least one militarized interstate dispute since 1990. Here are just a few of the main factors contributing to each country’s unrest. “Now it costs $10,000 or $12,000 for someone from Central America to migrate—criminal networks control the routes through Mexico. • Natural Disasters In Oct. 1998, Hurricane Mitch, the deadliest hurricane in the Western hemisphere in 200 years, hit Honduras’ shores, leaving more than 11,000 people dead and causing $5 billion worth of damages in Honduras and surrounding countries, including Nicaragua. The worldwide spread of COVID-19 worldwide has impacted our Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) operations across all regions. The new report, Ending Conflicts Over Water: Solutions to Water and Security Challenges , offers comprehensive solutions to a number of water-related crises. Review our privacy policy for more details. November 30, 2020. Conflict in Central America: Why thousands flee their homeland in search of a safer existence. Before the Trump administration enacted a zero-tolerance policy, thousands of Latinos had already left their homes in Central America to begin the trek to the U.S. Migration from Central America to the U.S. is not a new phenomenon, however the reasons, or push factors that are causing people to migrate or flee have changed. The impotence of Mexican government security forces has been made particularly evident in the events of the last few months. Maps in Central America graphics sequence show total population shift under the SSP5 / RCP 8.5 and SSP3 / RCP 8.5 scenarios used by the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel … The security and prosperity of Central America is directly linked to the security and prosperity of the United States. US politics. The New Humanitarian Between 2014 and 2016 alone, there were more than 8,900 asylum claims filed by individuals from this region, according to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. • Drug Trade: Honduras is located in the key geographic position separating the South American countries of Colombia and Venezuela from the north. Americas. Update: Read 10 Conflicts to Watch in 2019. Interventionist U.S. foreign policies wrapped in the rhetoric of stemming migration, waging war on drugs, and stoking development continue to enable militarization, human rights abuses, and displacement. Both airborne, and arguably more important, also originates in the U.S.: 262,500 El Salvadorans lose. Area accounts for many of the flow of drugs, often enlarging turf. Of South America 2004 and 2008, MS 13 and Barrio 18 the... 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